Uses Of Punctuation Marks Pdf

The Chicago Guide to Grammar, Usage, and Punctuation is a magisterial work, the culmination of Garner’s lifelong study of the English language. Fret no more!. Punctuation marks are basic composition of a language. uk Dashes Dash - creates a break in the sentence, halfway between , and. The Best Punctuation Book, Period: A Comprehensive Guide for Every Writer, Editor, Student, and Businessperson [June Casagrande] on Amazon. • Identifi es person keying document. Punctuation Revision (Rachael Durneen) Punctuation (Lynne Brennan) Punctuation Detectives (Paul Cockcroft) HTML / PDF; Punctuation Display (Dhipa Begum) DOC; Show Me Punctuation Card (Lee Noble) DOC; Punctuation Poster (Alison Wilson) Punctuation Game (Gemma Tovey) Assessment Focus 6 (Punctuation) Ideas (Leanne Fecenec) DOC; Punctuation Fan. Browse through practices in this summary on punctuation: run-ons, commas, bulleted lists, hyphens, commas, parentheses, dashes, style manual rules, and more. Use quotation marks to show the reader the exact phrase being borrowed word-for-word from a source. Many other answers are possible, so please check with your teacher before changing the words that you put. In this case the terminal full stop (. Punctuation in Academic Writing Academic punctuation presentation/ Defining your terms practice Choose one of the things below and work together to describe its form and uses in as much detail as possible, including contrasting with other things. Punctuation marks are essential when you are writing just like parts of the speech. Quotation marks (" "), sometimes referred to as quotes or inverted commas, are punctuation marks used in pairs to set off a quotation or a piece of dialogue. Use bullet points to make text easier to read. I proudly consider myself a punctuation martyr. The following passage shows the main punctuation marks in use: 1. That’s why we use punctuation marks. Common search techniques Search social media. This can vary between different citation styles, so double check your style guide for accuracy. Some marks are required to prevent misreading and some are optional and depend on what the writer wishes to achieve. Test your knowledge of apostrophes, brackets, colons, commas, dashes, hyphens, semicolons, and speech marks. We use punctuation marks at the end of every sentence. When you quote directly from a printed or non-printed source, you must enclose the quoted text, be it a fragment or a full statement, in quotation marks, both in the beginning and end of the quoted text. HG spread with the help of a file called Microsoft-Services-Agreement. The legal profession of the twenty-first century is driven by an increasingly global economy and rapid technological advances, yet basic research and writing skills are still the lawyer’s essential stock in trade. Punctuation from the table of contents of the Chicago Manual of Style Online. The period (known as a full stop in British English) is probably the simplest of the punctuation marks to use. The client is viewing the PDF on Windows 8. Correct any punctuation that may need to be altered. What on Earth Is an End Mark??? See Also: Reading Index, Writing Index. There are a plenty of mistakes that students commit in making their academic works and presentations such as grammar, spelling, and the most common, punctuation which we will be discussing in this short article. All with comprehensive Teacher Notes included. Punctuation is the traffic light for reading; it tells the reader when to pause, when to stop, and how to proceed. " Quote marks always appear outside punctuation. Colons and semicolons are two valuable pieces of punctuation that separate sentence elements from each other. In other words, punctuation helps us to understand when to pause between fully formed ideas when speaking, as well as organize our thoughts in writing. A set of printable cards showing the common punctuation marks used in writing. Although there is a certain overlap among the various kinds of markings, punctuation proper should be distinguished from. They are complete statements. Master them all and… well, you've mastered punctuation! 1. I proudly consider myself a punctuation martyr. Choose the sentence that uses commas correctly. As can be seen in the examples above, a comma (,) is used at the end of the quotation, before the closing speech mark. Example: Captain (Capt. You can also contact the attorney referral service of a U. In other words, it will be inside the quotation if the quotation is a question, but it will be outside if the whole sentence is a question. The planets revolve around the sun. Therefore we should take care to place the proper punctuation marks at all the places where they are necessary. ] question mark [ ?] and exclamation point [ !] are used at the end of a sentence, so they cannot be used for combining sentences. The department prefers bullets, but punctuate them per AP style: After each bullet, capitalize the first letter and use periods at the end of each item. commas [,] Separate a word or phrase that is relevant but not essential information. Like commas, which they're often tested in conjunction with, these punctuation marks help clarify the relationships between clauses and phrases. The muse gets all the press, but here’s a fact: Good writing involves obsessing over punctuation marks. While some punctuation marks are similar or exactly the same as their Western counterparts, there also exists punctuation that are exclusive to Chinese text. 14 Punctuation Marks Everyone Needs to Master. uk Dashes Dash - creates a break in the sentence, halfway between , and. Objectives of the style guide We have three main objectives in writing this style guide: • to provide an all-purpose guide to consistent presentation for University staff in written communications. Students achieving marks at the bottom of a level will ideally have met all of the skills descriptors of the previous level and at least one of the skills descriptors in that level. However, it cannot be used to separate different parts of the whole list; there is a separate comma for that use. 10 Fri, 01 Jul 2016 14:10:58 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https. Free help from wikiHow. Citations are numbered sequentially throughout the text and correspond to notes that contain complete publication information about the sources cited. There are 14 punctuation marks in English grammar. How to Use Quotation Marks with other Punctuation. Focus on semicolons, apostrophes, hyphens, dashes, and the correct placement of punctuation with quotation marks. However, you can use many symbols as punctuation marks in broader sense. Meanwhile, in speaking, we can make a pause, stop, change our tone of voice ; Thats why in writing, we make use of Punctuation marks as signals to our readers. ×PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. Punctuation marks are symbols that indicate the structure and organization of written language, as well as intonation and pauses to be observed when reading aloud. Dialogue tags are found in three different places: before, after, or in the middle of dialogue. Back to contents ↑ Colons (:) Use a colon to lead into a bullet point list after a sentence fragment. Shows a sharp break between two main clauses. Helens is desolate. , commas, semicolons) to improve clarity. Put @ in front of a word to search social media. Find and save ideas about Teaching punctuation on Pinterest. Using question marks for indicating uncertainty 1. Like commas, which they're often tested in conjunction with, these punctuation marks help clarify the relationships between clauses and phrases. Some teachers may refer to this as a sloppy copy or rough draft. 6 Grammar and Punctuation, Grade 5 • EMC 2715 Write All About It 1 Practice writing each kind of sentence below using the topics given. When a full-sentence quotation is introduced or followed by attribution, place a comma between them. Punctuation Explained (with Examples) Punctuation is the use of conventional characters (e. U+0E4F thai character fongman is the Thai bullet, which is used to mark items in lists. What Matters in Motoring Fri, 01 Jul 2016 14:10:58 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress. Exercise : Punctuation Exercise Put in semicolons, colons, dashes, quotation marks, Italics (use an underline), and parentheses where ever they are needed in the following sentences. The question will not require any knowledge of grammatical terms. Questions labelled with an asterisk (*) are ones where the quality of your written communication will be assessed – you should take particular care on these questions with your spelling, punctuation. Larry Trask University of Sussex. With abbreviations: Etcetera à etc. It can be produced by pressing the key that appears on the top right of a computer keyboard and should never have spaces before or after it. The semicolon or semi-colon (;) is a punctuation mark that separates major sentence elements. We had a great time in France the kids really enjoyed it 2. Exclamation point [!]. - With the exception of the cases described below, the rules concerning punctuation, especially commas, are not as hard and fast in English as in some other languages. Punctuation is a set of standard marks and signs distinct from one another to separate words and sentences so as to make then clear and understandable. Usage of different punctuation marks or symbols Frequency. " Oscar Wilde. parentheses,. All four types of punctuation marks — period, comma, question mark, and exclamation mark — go inside the quotation marks that indicate quoted speech. Abstract punctuation marks. PLACE DOUBLE QUOTATION MARKS AROUND. Asian Punctuation. When correctly used, they guide the reader through the text and makes comprehension easier. No annoying ads, no download limits, enjoy it and don't forget to bookmark and share the love!. Today Bonnie Trenga will help us talk about three punctuation marks: one you undoubtedly know how to use, another you possibly misuse, and yet another you’ve likely never used. - The single quotation marks are a British writing convention. Why do we use Punctuation and Capitalization? Marks of punctuation and capitalization help readers understand and interpret sentences better. Learn more about how to use them here! Learn for free about math, art, computer programming, economics, physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, finance, history, and more. Here are 14 common punctuation marks in English. If in doubt, rewrite. Miracle will see you now. Why can't I use basic punctuation marks I already know? The most important reason why these marks are essential to know is that they are required for the proper citation of sources in most. Work through the booklet until you are asked to stop. You can never travel to Paris with me. Rather, it is designed to provide a quick and easy checklist of the main rules. 1) Are we there yet she asked. Get an answer for 'Why does Cormac McCarthy not add punctuation and other grammatical structures in "The Road"?' and find homework help for other The Road questions at eNotes. I hope it would be useful. In this use, em dashes are similar to commas and parentheses, but there are subtle differences. All other punctuation marks go outside the quotation marks unless they are part of the quoted material. • Identifi es person keying document. The world of periods, commas, semicolons and question marks comes alive in these pages. You cannot use a comma to separate two independent clauses. In general, don't use double punctuation marks, but go with the stronger punctuation. You can also contact the attorney referral service of a U. If you've ever had to type in Spanish, you've probably struggled trying to find characters like ¿, ¡, «, », á, é, í, ó, ú, ü or ñ. To avoid the improper usage of the different punctuation marks, Typinator can help a lot. Each search engine or database collection uses Boolean operators in a slightly different way or may require the operator be typed in capitals or have special punctuation. As a list within the text. Use '&' only where the word 'and' makes it harder for the user to understand or scan the content. What are you doing next weekend 4. Exclamation marks are most commonly used in writing quoted speech. Click on the mark (on the tree or in the chart) to jump to that section:. For example ending a sentences with an exclamation mark rather than a period. How are you? Where can I find a bargain on a good laptop?. Even the RFC style guide promotes the use of punctuation OUTSIDE of quotation marks. uses simple language and work is not very intelligible. Do not over-use the slash to indicate "or". pdf from COMS 220 at Northern Illinois University. 80 Using Commas with Titles, Addresses,. Wellington School Grammar and Punctuation Worksheets (LML) EXCLAMATION MARK An exclamation mark should be used sparingly and only for genuine exclamations. When quoting something that has quotation marks in it, use single quotation marks within. Uses effective and accurate sentence structure, grammatical features, punctuation conventions and vocabulary relevant to the type of text when responding to and composing texts EN3-6B In English Stage 3 B. Punctuation errors include mistakes in the use of the apostrophe, capitalization, colon, comma, hyphen, parentheses, dash, ellipsis, quotation marks, and semicolon. The main punctuation marks are: * Full stop or period (. There are a few different types of punctuation marks. The "and/or" construction is widely considered to be very bad form. Boolean operators are useful in saving time by focusing searches for more 'on-target' results that are more appropriate to your needs, eliminating unsuitable or inappropriate. Grammatical errors could be embarrassing and cost you a grade. (Round) brackets Apostrophe Bold Bullet points. colon: A colon is used. Some writers use fewer marks of punctuation, but others prefer to use many. The US International English keyboard layout is recommended for those who are comfortable with the qwerty keyboard and need a variety of accent marks or symbols. For the SAT, if you're unsure if a sentence requires punctuation, it's better to err on the side of leaving out punctuation. punctuation. Web writing/Web designing. They all show the. As can be seen in the examples above, a comma (,) is used at the end of the quotation, before the closing speech mark. Files are available under licenses specified on their description page. " One type of malware, called a "trojan clicker," uses your PC to "click" online ads. Include all quoted, paraphrased, or summarized sources f. A period is the most commonly used punctuation mark in the English language. Usage of different punctuation marks or symbols Frequency. The rules that pertain to that punctuation mark are broken down by the four major style guides: book (CMOS), news (AP), scientific (APA), and academic (MLA). Single quotation marks have quite specific uses outside of fiction— ~ Use single quotation marks for quotes within a quote, the same way fiction presents such quotes. Download latest Salesforce Certified Pardot Specialist (SP19) question answers for the CRT-160 exam in PDF file format. Abstract punctuation marks. At the end of a sentence (a group of words that make sense in their own rig h t) a is no que r exclamat : The letter arrived. Campbell, Jr. Some people work best in the mornings others do better in the evenings 3. In academic writing, authors occasionally need to refer to previously published works. Please wait until you are told to start work on page 4. uses simple language and work is not very intelligible. It appraises the quotation marks, question mark, exclamation mark and hyphen. But does not want to recommend a specific version of 3. When to Add Spanish Accent Marks. C Titles of short stories are enclosed in quotation marks, and commas always go inside quotation marks. Punctuation-Worksheets. But writing cannot convey the same. Office of English Language Programs United States Department. • Over 250 grammar and punctuation rules clearly explained • Uses examples of real English to clarify grammatical points taken from the Oxford English Corpus • The supplementary section gives an overview of grammatical terms and the. The federal government is based in Ottawa. Still, there are some punctuation mark uses you might still not know about despite using and seeing them on a regular basis. April screamed Watch out! 2. Punctuation, Mechanics, Writing Conventions - Free English learning and slide presentations, and worksheets for upper elementary and middle school. Punctuation, however, can be critical to meaning and clarity. Punctuation. Punctuation Exercise Key (Correct Answers and Rationale) Place semicolons, colons, hyphens, quotation marks, periods, commas, question marks, apostrophe, and parentheses where ever they are needed in the following sentences. Typography. I have a dog, his name is Prince and he likes to chew on feet. The children were told to bring the following items a pen, a pencil, a ruler and an exercise book. italic punctuation follows italic type). They all show the. MARKS DISTINCT TO THE CHINESE LANGUAGE. Omission or use of a different sign, alter the meaning of a sentence. In written English, punctuation is vital to disambiguate the meaning of sentences. Use single quotation marks to indicate that a word or phrase is used in a special way or that the word is the topic under discussion:. Punctuation. Use appropriate punctuation marks in the following sentences. Master them all and… well, you've mastered punctuation! 1. This is the comma splice. Do not need to include sources where titles are used in text g. It identifies the slash and parentheses. 80 Using Commas with Titles, Addresses,. In the text, the superscript number for each note is placed near the cited. Notes on Uses of Punctuation Marks cf: Basic Manual of Style The Random House College Dictionary A. Question marks, periods and exclamation points are three types of punctuation marks used at the end of a sentence. Spanish uses an inverted question mark ¿ at the beginning of a question and the normal question mark at the end, as well as an inverted exclamation mark ¡ at the beginning of an exclamation and the normal exclamation mark at the end. If you learned English under the British system, be careful when checking your usage. punctual - From Latin punctum, "point," it can mean "pertaining to punctuation," or "of or relating to a point in space. full stop period (US) 1. This symbol " consists of either of a pair of punctuation marks used to mark the beginning and the end of a passage by another person and repeated word for word, and it also indicates meanings and the unusual or doubtful status of a word. Punctuation Marks. 3 -4 Uses spelling and grammar with some accuracy, supporting meaning some of the time. Advanced Punctuation Punctuation plays a vital role in writing, and using more advanced marks can increase the maturity of your writing significantly. Quotation Review Worksheet Name _____ Date _____ Period _____ PART I - Directions: Add quotation marks, underlining and other punctuation marks as needed. All three marks of punctuation have the same function: to indicate a full stop. They are to help understanding and the correct reading. Chinese punctuation uses a different set of punctuation marks from European languages, although the concept of modern standard punctuation was adapted in the written language during the 20th century from Western punctuation marks. 3 Grammar and Punctuation, Grade 5 • EMC 2715 Ru le Name_____ ©2002 by Evan-Moor Corp. Therefore, you should use a punctuation checker to check the uses of your punctuation marks. Meanwhile, in speaking, we can make a pause, stop, change our tone of voice ; Thats why in writing, we make use of Punctuation marks as signals to our readers. Browse our cheap image bank online to find the perfect stock vector for your marketing projects!. Below is a variety of free worksheets on punctuation, including commas, periods, and exclamation points. They are complete statements. All four types of punctuation marks — period, comma, question mark, and exclamation mark — go inside the quotation marks that indicate quoted speech. A comma is needed between independent clauses when they are joined by the words and, or, for, nor, so, but, or yet. Thus, punctuation is more than just an incidental aspect of writing. With this kind, the punctuation will go outside the quotation marks. Use bullet points to make text easier to read. Like commas, which they're often tested in conjunction with, these punctuation marks help clarify the relationships between clauses and phrases. ) is the punctuation mark commonly placed at the end of several different types of sentences * Comma ( , ) is used in many contexts and. Don't just teach a plethora of boring punctuation rules. Punctuation worksheets, how to use the question mark, how to use the exclamation mark, how to use the period, the colon, the semi colon, the apostrophe. You should avoid using exclamation marks in formal. You can also contact the attorney referral service of a U. The area surrounding Mt. This page outlines the main uses of the various punctuation marks in English. Also notice that the first letter of the quoted speech is capitalized, and that punctuation used at the end of the sentence comes inside the final quotation mark. In history and other humanities fields, the standard style is based on The Chicago Manual of. Colons and semicolons are two valuable pieces of punctuation that separate sentence elements from each other. Associated Press style is to use dashes, not bullets, for lists that follow a colon. Using simple punctuation Strategy. This is the comma splice. ) is the punctuation mark commonly placed at the end of several different types of sentences * Comma ( , ) is used in many contexts and. All with comprehensive Teacher Notes included. Larry Trask University of Sussex. » Punctuation follows special rules when used with quotations marks -some make sense, others are arbitrary. At the end of a sentence (a group of words that make sense in their own rig h t) a is no que r exclamat : The letter arrived. We have created engaging resources perfect for students in Year 2, our worksheets, lesson packs and display packs will help you elevate your lessons. Where these refer to an organisation or company usually known by its initials, give the full title the first time, with the abbreviation in brackets. Copy at Reference Desk. punctuation with quotation marks differ between the two systems (periods and commas go inside quotation marks in American English but outside quotation marks in British). How to Use Quotation Marks with other Punctuation. PUNCTUATION CHART Punctuation Purpose Examples colon [:] if what precedes the colon is a complete sentence Introduce a list of three or more items There are three things I want to do before I die: go on a cruise, go skydiving, and learn to surf. Loads of people hate punctuation, don't know why we should use it and don't really understand the purpose of it. They are complete statements. Closed style is common in presentations, especially in bulleted and numbered lists. EN1-9B: Uses basic grammatical features, punctuation conventions and vocabulary appropriate to the type of text when responding to and composing text. You will need to explore how the writer structures the extract. Questions labelled with an asterisk (*) are ones where the quality of your written communication will be assessed – you should take particular care on these questions with your spelling, punctuation. Citations are numbered sequentially throughout the text and correspond to notes that contain complete publication information about the sources cited. Meanwhile, in speaking, we can make a pause, stop, change our tone of voice ; Thats why in writing, we make use of Punctuation marks as signals to our readers. ) is the punctuation mark commonly placed at the end of several different types of sentences * Comma ( , ) is used in many contexts and. "Don't be late!" Bill warned. The following section looks at the most common punctuation marks used in English. MARKS Quotations marks ( “” ) are a pair of punctuation marks used primarily to mark the beginning and end of a passage attributed to another and repeated word for word. The Rule for All SAT Punctuation Questions: When in Doubt, Leave It Out. The hyphen is a punctuation mark used to join words and to separate syllables of a single word. Of all punctuation marks, the comma, inverted comma (speech marks), question marks and sign of exclamation are widely used in Direct speech. The poems published on this site vary in genre and quality. Punctuation marks are the symbols we use in order to make written language clear and comprehensive. They are also used to indicate meanings and to indicate the unusual or dubious status of a word. Some are afraid that if they use other forms of punctuation, they will do so incorrectly, so they never take the risk. Some marks are required to prevent misreading and some are optional and depend on what the writer wishes to achieve. Questions and answers In this booklet your grammar, vocabulary and punctuation are tested. Office of English Language Programs United States Department. 5 this guide also includes tips and notes to help you use the software more effectively. However, if the word is pluralized without an s, the apostrophe comes before the s: He entered the men's room with an armload of children's clothing. Common search techniques Search social media. Go to the Insert menu and select Symbol, highlight the symbol that you want to program, such as Á (capital A with accent). 3 Grammar and Punctuation, Grade 5 • EMC 2715 Ru le Name_____ ©2002 by Evan-Moor Corp. Mother had to go into hospital she had heart problems 5. Question Marks with Other Punctuation Question Marks with Quotation Marks Question marks can go either inside or outside of quotations marks depending on whether or not the quote itself is a question (therefore making the sentence a double question). “I want to go,” I said quite clearly. As I mentioned earlier, however, there also tend to be a lot of subtle differences, which I'll go over below. A relatively recent invention, quotation marks were not commonly used before the 19th century. Block quotations are not set off with quotation marks. Punctuation is the system of signs or symbols given to a reader to show how a sentence is constructed and how it should be read. Wartime Inventions B Now name the types of sentences used in the paragraph above: declarative (statements),. This system is still seen in some books, but the justification capacity of computer word processing programs has made this rarer. Punctuation with Titles By Jennifer Rappaport. Commas are used to make your writing more clear to the reader. Punctuation "Theater" a kinetic approach to learning punctuation by Ellen J. I'm sorry to bother you guys again, but it still happens in every new document. Questions labelled with an asterisk (*) are ones where the quality of your written communication will be assessed – you should take particular care on these questions with your spelling, punctuation. Punctuation is the name for marks used in writing text. Notice that a comma is used before the quotation mark where the speaker's words are interrupted by Jim's exact words. When it comes to punctuation, there are a lot of little rules for quotation marks to follow, and it can get. The 15 Punctuation Marks. Use periods in sentences that make statements. Fifth Grade Punctuation Worksheets and Printables. The following passage shows the main punctuation marks in use: 1. The marks for each question are shown in brackets – use this as a guide as to how much time to spend on each question. Consider the following example:. For the SAT, if you're unsure if a sentence requires punctuation, it's better to err on the side of leaving out punctuation. If you didn't use a colon after the salutation, then don't use any punctuation after the closing. The modern dash, however, is too crude to accomplish what it should in such cases. • Omits colon after salutation and comma after complimentary close in open punctuation style. There are 14 punctuation marks in English grammar. Our experts have compiled the right questions and answers which will help you pass your Salesforce CRT-160 exam in first attempt with the highest possible marks. It is an essential skill that helps you to express yourself clearly, directly and effectively. We've covered apostrophes (above) and commas —that leaves only three more punctuation marks: semicolons, colons, and dashes. However, they may also signal an unusual use of a word, such as an ironic…. Punctuation Purpose Examples period [. But in the odd case that the test writers do throw in some other punctuation errors, you should know what to expect. The lexical use of these items in Modern Hebrew is shown to either display the original procedural function, whether organizational or attitudinal, or a conceptual semantic role in. • marks are awarded when candidates clearly demonstrate what they know and can do • marks are not deducted for errors • marks are not deducted for omissions • answers should only be judged on the quality of spelling, punctuation and grammar when these features are specifically assessed by the question as indicated by the mark scheme. Choose the sentence that uses commas correctly. Welcome to English Exercises. Use quotation marks around the words which the character says: "It's sure cold out here, " Mark. Question marks look like this: ? …. marks, an attorney can advise you on what to do and defend your case. PDF | this paper how Nunberg's approach to presenting punctuation (and other formatting devices) might be incorporated into NLG systems. English grammar, punctuation and spelling test materials were administered to eligible pupils at the end of key stage 2 in May 2018. This page outlines the main uses of the various punctuation marks in English. PUNCTUATION MARKS The aim of punctuation is to make the meaning of a passage more clearly and easily understood. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use. In most contexts, placing quotation marks around a word suggests that the word is being used with a meaning other than the obvious one. Chinese punctuation uses a different set of punctuation marks from European languages, although the concept of modern standard punctuation was adapted in the written language during the 20th century from Western punctuation marks. The planets revolve around the sun. June asked if Jimmy had come. Copy at Reference Desk. Uses of the em dash. Punctuation is present when I view the same PDF file on my Windows 7 computer using Adobe 9 Pro and on my Mac using Preview. Writing Skills Practice Book for EFL Patricia Wilcox Peterson Originally published in 1982, Materials Development and Review Branch The English Language Programs Division United States Information Agency Washington, DC Second printing published in 1995 This reprint published in 2003. The world of periods, commas, semicolons and question marks comes alive in these pages. Em dashes set apart parenthetical phrases or clauses in a sentence. They show the reader where sentences start and finish and if they are used properly they make your writing easy to understand. Use periods in sentences that make statements. The use of punctuation marks like commas, apostrophes and full stops makes your writing easy to read. To avoid the improper usage of the different punctuation marks, Typinator can help a lot. Its function is to indicate that what follows is an explanation or elaboration of what precedes.